sexta-feira, 18 de março de 2016

segunda-feira, 7 de março de 2016

Ciência Econômica Pode se Preocupar com a Moral?

Aquele que é considerado o Pai da Economia (Adam Smith) era professor de moral. No entanto, ele afastou a preocupação moral de sua teoria. Será que a economia tem suas próprias leis, que impedem que preocupações com a moral e com o social sejam incluídas?
Aqui vai parte de um ótimo texto de Thomas Storck sobre o assunto, publicado no The Distributist Review. Leiam todo o texto clicando no link.

March 7, 2016
Probably the main reaction that most Catholics have to the subject of Catholic social teaching is indifference or even, in some cases, hostility. Is it not, some would say, just some sort of left-wing scheme dreamed up in the aftermath of Vatican II, or maybe something manufactured out of the wooly brains of Europeans clerics? Or if not this, then it is equated with works of charity, such as helping out at a soup kitchen or giving clothes to the homeless. But while these works of charity are important, indeed essential, they are not the main focus of Catholic social teaching. In order, then, to understand this subject we should begin with some examination of the phrase itself, for from that we can learn much about its contents.
But let us look primarily at the second word of the phrase, social. This, I think, is where most resistance to the idea resides. Many Catholics, in their laudable efforts to obey God’s law and follow the teachings of the Church, concentrate primarily on those commandments (especially the sixth and the ninth) that concern personal morality. Nor do I deny the necessity of keeping these two commandments if we hope to reach Heaven. But there is more. For Catholic teaching since New Testament times has considered that the redemptive message of Jesus Christ comes not just to individuals, but to groups as such, that is, to men divided into the many kinds of social groupings which human nature tends to create, including the state or civil society. Although a Catholic can live a good Catholic life in a pagan society, not only is it easier for him if the society around him is Catholic, but that society ought to be Catholic. It is not right that we restrict the saving work of our Lord and his Church only to individuals. That is part of the heresy of Martin Luther, who was willing to consign society and the state to the Devil and make Christianity primarily a private matter.
But the Catholic Church has never agreed to this. In his encyclical on the Kingship of Jesus Christ, Quas Primas (1925), Pope Pius XI stated,
If this is so, then the very laws and institutions of society should not only give honor to Christ, but these laws and institutions should reflect his justice. Nor can we suppose that somehow since the Second Vatican Council the Church has abandoned this age-old Catholic teaching, for the Council itself taught that it is part of the mission of the laity “to impress the divine law on the affairs of the earthly city”.2
Fundamentally, as we saw above in Quas Primas, men organized into groups, including into political communities, are as much bound to obey the law of God as are individual persons. Thus a state is bound to construct its laws in such a way as to promote justice. And even a business firm or a corporation, although its primary mission is not one of promoting social justice, cannot violate justice in its operations or dealings. Since businesses are made up of human beings, and human beings are bound to obey the law of God in all their acts, the mere fact that men have combined into groups to produce some product or service hardly exempts them from obeying his laws. With that in mind, let us look at how Catholic social teaching deals with some of the concrete points of ethics as they relate to economics.
The question of wage justice was one of the first topics taken up by the Popes with the renewal of Catholic social doctrine that began in 1891 with the encyclical Rerum Novarum. At the time of Rerum Novarum it was widely held that if an employee accepted the wage offered by the employer, then that wage contract was ipso factojust, for had not a free agreement been made on both sides? Pope Leo’s answer, and indeed the answer of every subsequent pope, has been no, such an agreement is not necessarily just. And the fallacy of those who hold that agreement between employer and employee always produces justice arises from the fact that it rests upon an individualistic way of looking on man and society.
We must begin, then, to see the economic order as neither a machine whose output is determined according to exact quasi-mechanical laws nor as a field for dog-eat-dog competition. Instead, like all human activities, economic activity leaves considerable room for alteration according to man’s free will and, as we will see later, according to the laws, customs and institutions which mankind has established. If society is capable of producing enough food, shelter and other essentials so that no one need starve, then there is no reason for anyone to receive less than a living wage, provided of course that he is willing to work.
Let us look at another matter related to economics, property rights. Here the Church teaches that society acting through the state has the right to set limits and bounds to the use of property.
In other words, it is the common good, the good of the whole of society, which must be the final rule in economic matters. Although individuals do have rights, very often these rights are not absolute, and must yield to the creation of a society which is focused more on gaining Heaven than on gaining more earthly goods. Men should hope and work for the goods necessary for their and their families’ sustenance; but beyond that a preoccupation with earthly gain is likely to come under the condemnation uttered by St. Paul when he wrote, “if we have food and clothing, with these we shall be content. But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation, into a snare, into many senseless and hurtful desires that plunge men into ruin and destruction. For the love of money is the root of all evils; it is through this craving that some have wandered away from the faith and pierced their hearts with many pangs.”8
Unfortunately many people imagine that economic activity is in a separate world. Yes, they might say, we must keep God’s commandments. That is the realm of religion and morality. But the economic order is different. It has its own laws. It is more or less autonomous. Any talk of reigning in man’s economic appetites smacks of socialism.
But neither Sacred Scripture nor the Catholic Church views the matter in such a fashion. Socialism was an attempt to control economic activity for what were basically materialist goals, more production, which would supposedly bring about a better life for all. Socialism failed on many levels. But from the fact that socialism was and is wrong, it does not follow that the only practical alternative is a market economy that is devoid of ethical concerns, in which the economic motive is allowed nearly unlimited freedom.
In my experience, one of the factors that incline some people to belittle Catholic social teaching is that they think the science of economics teaches conclusions that are at variance with the teaching of the Church. Many who have some formal or informal knowledge of economics make the claim that since economic science gives us a picture of how an economy works, in which there is hardly any room for moral norms, that the popes were well-meaning but misguided, and either exceeded their authority or at least did not teach with anything approaching infallibility.
But the answer to that is twofold. On the one hand, the Church has been teaching about morality in relation to economics since the time of our Lord, and certainly the Popes felt no hesitation about making pronouncements in this area which they surely regarded as authoritative. 
But fortunately our hope for understanding how the Church’s social thought may be reconciled with economics is not very difficult.
For the position of those economists who erect a conflict here is like that of some philosophers who claim that their subject renders impossible the Church’s dogma that the existence of God can be demonstrated by reason or that human beings possess a purely spiritual soul which survives death. For although a Kantian or a logical positivist philosopher might say this, we know that there are many schools of philosophy and that a Thomist, whose claim to be a philosopher is as good as any others, would be able to show by reason that the upholders of these other schools are simply wrong. Thus the Church’s doctrines do not contradict philosophy, but only certain schools of philosophy. So with economics. There is no one single teaching of economics. There are many schools of economists, and it is a mistake to identify the teachings or conclusions of just one or two economic schools with any certain conclusions of a science. Both the dominant neoclassical or “orthodox” school and the Austrian school, whose practitioners often regard ideas such as the just wage as merely an effort by do-gooders to impose their notions on an impersonal economic system, are simply in the position of the Kantian or logical positivist philosopher as regards Catholic teaching. They may regard Catholic doctrine as disproven by their studies, but we know that they cannot claim to be the only voice of philosophy. So with economists.
Although the Church will never explicitly identify one school of economic science as the only true one, such groups of economists as the American Institutionalist school or the German Historical school left ample room in their understanding of how an economy works for the ethical concerns of Catholic social teaching.
The Institutionalists, for example, argued that neither the “orthodox” neoclassicals nor the Austrians really understand how an economy in the real world functions. Neoclassical economists, for example, are too wedded to their graphs and equations, and do not understand that in addition to market forces there are other factors which influence economic arrangements and relations. These include institutions, including the legal system, custom, and simply raw power. When a company, for example, intimidates its employees to prevent them from organizing a union, this is nothing except the more powerful working upon the less powerful. And similarly, if a government agency or some other entity intervenes in such a case to curb the power of management, this again is an example of another power being exercised to allow justice to operate. Or when corporate CEOs appoint friends and colleagues to their boards, knowing that they will in turn approve inordinate salaries and benefits for these CEOs, this is hardly an example of market forces in action, but simply of power, power often working behind the scenes. The outcome in all these cases might be economic in the sense that it is concerned with money or other economic goods, but it is not the forces of supply and demand that are at work, but the power of management or of unions or government. Or when limited liability laws protect corporate stockholders from any adverse effects of their corporation’s conduct, does not such a law influence how a corporation will act? If the stockholders were liable to the extent of their investment for corporate misdeeds, would not this go a long way to change corporate behavior and to make the shareholders watch more carefully over the activities of the entity of which they are legally the owners? Yet such corporate limited liability laws can be changed, and in fact originated only in the nineteenth century. They are not examples of the so-called “laws of economics,” written into the very nature of things. I do not deny the existence of economic laws; they are real. But they are only part of the explanation of economic behavior, and moreover, generally express themselves via differing legal systems, customs and other institutions. Therefore there is no conflict between economic science and Catholic social teaching, but at most a conflict between Catholic social teaching and certain schools or sects of economists, even if these schools happen today to be dominant in American academia. The same can be said for psychology or sociology, where the schools dominant in America academia are likewise hostile to Catholic teaching in many areas.
This world is not our final home and the things of this world will not last forever. Therefore we must not use them so that we end up losing our eternal salvation. An economy must serve man’s life, and primarily those aspects of his life which are the most important. Thus economic arrangements that seem to function more by fueling man’s greed than by pointing him toward virtue are suspect. Catholic social teaching is nothing but a recognition that all of man’s life must be lived under God, and that like individuals, institutions will either help man to achieve salvation or hinder him. And if this is so, then we will be wise if we put all our affairs, even those dealing with our livings and external goods, under God’s law, “for all men, whether collectively or individually, are under the dominion of Christ. In Him is the salvation of the individual, in Him is the salvation of society.”

Originally published in Catholic Men’s Quarterly.

sexta-feira, 4 de março de 2016

O Legado Econômico e Social de Obama

Olhem os gráficos acima que tratam da mudança que Obama trouxe para os Estados Unidos, colhido do site Zero Hedge.

O que eles dizem?

- Os empréstimos estudantis explodiram. Pobreza;

- O Food Stamp (espécie de Bolsa Família) chegou a estratosfera. Pobreza;

- A dívida federal alcançou níveis nunca antes na história. Pobreza hoje e no futuro;

- A emissão de dinheiro também alcançou níveis nunca antes da história, e nada de aumento na produtividade;

- Os custos com gastos de saúde atingiram níveis recordes;

- A força de trabalho caiu para níveis baixíssimos. O desemprego está caindo por conta de gente se mantendo fora da força de trabalho;

- A desigualdade entre negros americanos está em nível recorde. Ele faria um governo "pós-racial";

- A renda média das famílias está em níveis muito baixos, só vistos na década de 90. Classe média bem mais pobre;

- A percentagem daqueles que são proprietários de casas também em nível baixos da década de 90.

Obama implantou um programa econômico keynesiano/socialista para o país, será que os Estados Unidos vão continuar nessa trajetória?

Será que não há exemplos suficientes para saber onde ela vai dá?