sexta-feira, 2 de dezembro de 2016

Chesterton: Como NÃO se Deve Falar com um Comunista.


Li hoje um ótimo artigo de Chesterton sobre como se deve falar com um comunista. Está no site do The Distributist Review.

Leiam o artigo, clicando aqui. Chesterton e brilhantismo são sinônimos.


quarta-feira, 30 de novembro de 2016

Lista de 244 Padres-Cientistas. Muitos São Fundadores de Ramos Científicos. E Até Pai da Ciência Moderna.


O site National Catholic Register traz uma lista de 244 grandes padres (e até papa) que são cientistas renomados.

É muito instrutivo. Muitos são fundadores de todo um ramo científico. Há desde o pai da ciência moderna (padre Roger Bacon), paasando por: pai da genética (padre Mendel), pai do Big Bang (padre George Lemaitre na foto acima com Einstein), pai da geologia (beato Nicolas Steno), pai da apicultiura (padre Dzierzon), pai do motor elétrico (padre Jedlik), pai da egiptologia (padre Kircher), pai da acústica (padre Mersenne), pai da contabilidade (padre Pacioli),...

A lista tem 244 nomes. Mas falta gente muito ilustre. Quem não chamaria São Tomás de Aquino de cientista? O papa português João XXI também era um matemático e médico de renome e não está na lista.

Eu coloquei o nome de um dos meu filhos de Nicolas, pois vi em 2009 que havia muitos Nicolas (Nicole, Nicola, Niccolo, Nicolau) entre padres cientistas.

Vejam a lista abaixo.

Men of the Church and Men of Science
  1. Fr. José de Acosta (1539–1600) – Jesuit missionary and naturalist who wrote one of the first detailed and realistic descriptions of the New World
  2. Fr. François d'Aguilon (1567–1617) – Belgian Jesuit mathematician, physicist and architect
  3. Fr. Lorenzo Albacete (1941–2014) – priest, physicist and theologian
  4. Fr. Albert of Castile (c. 1460-1522) - Dominican priest and historian
  5. Bishop Albert of Saxony (philosopher) (c. 1320–1390) – German bishop who wrote on logic and physics; with Buridan he helped develop the theory that was a precursor to the modern theory of inertia
  6. St. Albertus Magnus (c. 1206–1280) – Dominican friar and Bishop of Regensberg who has been described as "one of the most famous precursors of modern science in the High Middle Ages." Patron Saint of Natural Sciences; Works in physics, logic, metaphysics, biology and psychology.
  7. Fr. Giulio Alenio (1582–1649) – Jesuit theologian, astronomer and mathematician; was sent to the Far East as a missionary and adopted a Chinese name and customs; wrote 25 books, including a cosmography and a Life of Jesus in Chinese.
  8. Fr. José María Algué (1856–1930) – priest and meteorologist who invented the barocyclonometer
  9. Fr. José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1737–1799) – priest, scientist, historian, cartographer and meteorologist who wrote more than thirty treatises on a variety of scientific subjects
  10. Fr. Francesco Castracane degli Antelminelli (1817–1899) – priest and botanist who was one of the first to introduce microphotography into the study of biology
  11. Fr. Giovanni Antonelli (1818–1872) – priest and director of the Ximenian Observatory of Florence who also collaborated on the design of a prototype of the internal combustion engine
  12. Fr. Nicolò Arrighetti (1709–1767) – Jesuit who wrote treatises on light, heat and electricity
  13. Fr. Mariano Artigas (1938–2006) – Spanish physicist, philosopher and theologian who received the Templeton Foundation Prize in 1995
  14. Fr. Giuseppe Asclepi (1706–1776) – Jesuit astronomer and physician who served as director of the Collegio Romano observatory; the lunar crater Asclepi is named after him
  15. Fr. Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco, O.P., Ph.D., S.T.D., Professor of Biology and of Theology at Providence College
  16. Fr. Roger Bacon (c. 1214–1294) – Franciscan friar who made significant contributions to mathematics and optics and has been described as the Father of Modern Scientific Method
  17. Abbot Bernardino Baldi (1533–1617) – abbot, mathematician and writer
  18. Fr. Eugenio Barsanti (1821–1864) – Piarist, possible inventor of the internal combustion engine
  19. Fr. Bartholomeus Amicus (1562–1649) – Jesuit, wrote on philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and the concept of vacuum and its relationship with God
  20. Fr. Daniello Bartoli (1608–1685) – Bartoli and fellow Jesuit astronomer Niccolò Zucchi are credited as probably having been the first to see the equatorial belts on the planet Jupiter
  21. Fr. Joseph Bayma (1816–1892) – Jesuit known for work in stereochemistry and mathematics
  22. Fr. Giacopo Belgrado (1704–1789) – Jesuit professor of mathematics and physics and court mathematician who did experimental work in physics
  23. Fr. Mario Bettinus (1582–1657) – Jesuit philosopher, mathematician and astronomer; lunar crater Bettinus named after him
  24. Fr. Giuseppe Biancani (1566–1624) – Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and selenographer, after whom the lunar crater Blancanus is named
  25. Fr. Jacques de Billy (1602–1679) – Jesuit who has produced a number of results in number theory which have been named after him; published several astronomical tables; the lunar crater Billy is named after him
  26. Fr. Paolo Boccone (1633–1704) – Cistercian botanist who contributed to the fields of medicine and toxicology
  27. Fr. Bernard Bolzano (1781–1848) – priest, mathematician and logician whose other interests included metaphysics, ideas, sensation and truth
  28. Fr. Anselmus de Boodt (1550–1632) – priest who was one of the founders of mineralogy
  29. Fr. Theodoric Borgognoni (1205–1298) – Dominican friar, Bishop of Cervia and medieval Surgeon who made important contributions to antiseptic practice and anesthetics
  30. Fr. Christopher Borrus (1583–1632) – Jesuit mathematician and astronomy who made observations on the magnetic variation of the compass
  31. Fr. Roger Joseph Boscovich (1711–1787) – Jesuit polymath known for his contributions to modern atomic theory and astronomy
  32. Fr. Joachim Bouvet (1656–1730) – Jesuit sinologist and cartographer who did his work in China
  33. Fr. Michał Boym (c. 1612–1659) – Jesuit who was one of the first westerners to travel within the Chinese mainland and the author of numerous works on Asian fauna, flora and geography
  34. Fr. Thomas Bradwardine (c. 1290–1349) – Archbishop of Canterbury and mathematician who helped develop the mean speed theorem; one of the Oxford Calculators
  35. Fr. Martin Stanislaus Brennan (1845–1927) – priest and astronomer who wrote several books about science
  36. Fr. Henri Breuil (1877–1961) – priest, archaeologist, anthropologist, ethnologist and geologist
  37. Fr. Jan Brożek (1585–1652) – Polish priest, polymath, mathematician, astronomer and physician; the most prominent Polish mathematician of the 17th century
  38. Fr. Louis-Ovide Brunet (1826–1876) – priest, one of the founding fathers of Canadian botany
  39. Bl. Francesco Faà di Bruno (c. 1825–1888) – priest and mathematician beatified by Pope John Paul II
  40. Fr. Ismaël Bullialdus (1605–1694) – priest, astronomer and member of the Royal Society; the Bullialdus crater is named in his honor
  41. Fr. Jean Buridan (c. 1300 – after 1358) – priest who formulated early ideas of momentum and inertial motion and sowed the seeds of the Copernican revolution in Europe
  42. Fr. Roberto Busa (1913–2011) – Jesuit, wrote a lemmatization of the complete works of St. Thomas Aquinas (Index Thomisticus) which was later digitalized by IBM. Fr. Busa is the impetus for the use of alphabet, including search engines on computers and, later, the Net
  43. Fr. Niccolò Cabeo (1586–1650) – Jesuit mathematician; the crater Cabeus is named in his honor
  44. Fr. Nicholas Callan (1799–1846) – priest and Irish scientist best known for his work on the induction coil
  45. Fr. John Cantius (1390–1473) – priest and Buridanist mathematical physicist who further developed the theory of impetus
  46. Fr. Jean Baptiste Carnoy (1836–1899) – priest, has been called the Founder of the Science of Cytology
  47. Fr. Giovanni di Casali (d. c. 1375) – Franciscan friar who provided a graphical analysis of the motion of accelerated bodies
  48. Fr. Paolo Casati (1617–1707) – Jesuit mathematician who wrote on astronomy and vacuums; the lunar crater Casatus is named after him
  49. Fr. Laurent Cassegrain (1629–1693) – priest who was the probable namesake of the Cassegrain telescope; the lunar crater Cassegrain is named after him
  50. Fr. Benedetto Castelli (1578–1643) – Benedictine mathematician; long-time friend and supporter of Galileo Galilei, who was his teacher; wrote an important work on fluids in motion
  51. Fr. Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598–1647) – Jesuate priest (not to be confused with Jesuit) known for his work on the problems of optics and motion, work on the precursors of infinitesimal calculus and the introduction of logarithms to Italy; his principle in geometry partially anticipated integral calculus; the lunar crater Cavalerius is named in his honor
  52. Fr. Antonio José Cavanilles (1745–1804) – priest and leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century
  53. Fr. Francesco Cetti (1726–1778) – Jesuit zoologist and mathematician
  54. Fr. Tommaso Ceva (1648–1737) – Jesuit mathematician and professor who wrote treatises on geometry, gravity and arithmetic
  55. Fr. Christopher Clavius (1538–1612) –Jesuit astronomer and mathematician who headed the commission that yielded the Gregorian calendar; wrote influential astronomical textbook
  56. Br. Guy Consolmagno (1952–) – Jesuit astronomer and planetary scientist
  57. Fr. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) – Renaissance astronomer and priest famous for his heliocentric cosmology that set in motion the Copernican Revolution
  58. Fr. Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) – Franciscan cosmographer, cartographer, encyclopedist and globe-maker
  59. Fr. George Coyne (1933–) – Jesuit astronomer and former director of the Vatican Observatory
  60. Fr. James Cullen (mathematician) (1867–1933) – Jesuit mathematician who published what is now known as Cullen numbers in number theory
  61. Fr. James Curley (astronomer) (1796–1889) – Jesuit, first director of Georgetown Observatory and determined the latitude and longitude of Washington, D.C.
  62. Fr. Albert Curtz (1600–1671) – Jesuit astronomer who expanded on the works of Tycho Brahe and contributed to early understanding of the moon; the lunar crater Curtius is named after him
  63. Fr. Johann Baptist Cysat (1587–1657) – Jesuit mathematician and astronomer, after whom the lunar crater Cysatus is named; published the first printed European book concerning Japan; one of the first to make use of the newly developed telescope; most important work was on comets
  64. Fr. Jean-Baptiste Chappe d'Auteroche (1722–1769) – priest and astronomer best known for his observations of the transits of Venus
  65. Fr. Ignazio Danti (1536–1586) – Dominican mathematician, astronomer, cosmographer and cartographer
  66. Fr. Armand David (1826–1900) – Lazarist priest, zoologist and botanist who did important work in these fields in China
  67. Fr. Francesco Denza (1834–1894) – Barnabite meteorologist, astronomer and director of Vatican Observatory
  68. Fr. Václav Prokop Diviš (1698–1765) – Czech priest who studied electrical phenomena and constructed, among other inventions, the first electrified musical instrument in history
  69. Fr. Alberto Dou (1915–2009) – Spanish Jesuit priest who was president of the Royal Society of Mathematics, member of the Royal Academy of Natural, Physical and Exact Sciences and one of the foremost mathematicians of his country
  70. Fr. Johann Dzierzon (1811–1906) – priest and pioneering apiarist who discovered the phenomenon of parthenogenesis among bees and designed the first successful movable-frame beehive; has been described as the "Father of modern apiculture"
  71. Fr. Honoré Fabri (1607–1688) – Jesuit mathematician and physicist
  72. Fr. Jean-Charles de la Faille (1597–1652) – Jesuit mathematician who determined the center of gravity of the sector of a circle for the first time
  73. Fr. Gabriele Falloppio (1523–1562) – priest and one of the most important anatomists and physicians of the sixteenth century; the Fallopian tubes, which extend from the uterus to the ovaries, are named for him
  74. Fr. Gyula Fényi (1845–1927) – Jesuit astronomer and director of the Haynald Observatory; noted for his observations of the sun; the lunar crater Fényi is named after him
  75. Fr. Louis Feuillée (1660–1732) – Minim explorer, astronomer, geographer and botanist
  76. Placidus Fixlmillner (1721–1791) – Benedictine priest and one of the first astronomers to compute the orbit of Uranus
  77. Fr. Paolo Frisi (1728–1784) – priest, mathematician and astronomer who did significant work in hydraulics
  78. Fr. José Gabriel Funes (1963– ) – Jesuit astronomer and current director of the Vatican Observatory
  79. Fr. Lorenzo Fazzini (1787–1837) – priest and physicist born in Vieste and working in Naples
  80. Fr. Joseph Galien (1699 – c. 1762) – Dominican professor who wrote on aeronautics, hailstorms and airships
  81. Abbot Jean Gallois (1632–1707) – French scholar, abbot and member of Academie des sciences
  82. Fr. Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655) – French priest, astronomer and mathematician who published the first data on the transit of Mercury; best known intellectual project attempted to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity
  83. Fr. Agostino Gemelli (1878–1959) – Franciscan physician and psychologist; founded Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Milan
  84. Fr. Johannes von Gmunden (c. 1380–1442) – Priest, mathematician and astronomer who compiled astronomical tables; Asteroid 15955 Johannesgmunden named in his honor
  85. Fr. Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora (1645–1700) – priest, polymath, mathematician, astronomer and cartographer; drew the first map of all of New Spain
  86. Fr. Andrew Gordon (Benedictine) (1712–1751) – Benedictine monk, physicist and inventor who made the first electric motor
  87. Fr. Christoph Grienberger (1561–1636) – Jesuit astronomer after whom the lunar crater Gruemberger is named; verified Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's moons.
  88. Fr. Francesco Maria Grimaldi (1618–1663) – Jesuit who discovered the diffraction of light (indeed coined the term "diffraction"), investigated the free fall of objects and built and used instruments to measure lunar geological features
  89. Fr. Robert Grosseteste (c. 1175 – 1253) – bishop who was one of the most knowledgeable men of the Middle Ages; has been called "the first man ever to write down a complete set of steps for performing a scientific experiment"
  90. Fr. Paul Guldin (1577–1643) – Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the surface and the volume of a solid of revolution
  91. Fr. Bartolomeu de Gusmão (1685–1724) – Jesuit known for his early work on lighter-than-air airship design
  92. Fr. Johann Georg Hagen (1847–1930) – Jesuit director of the Georgetown and Vatican Observatories; the lunar crater Hagen is named after him
  93. Abbot Nicholas Halma (1755–1828) – French abbot, mathematician and translator
  94. Fr. Jean-Baptiste du Hamel (1624–1706) – French priest, natural philosopher and secretary of the Academie Royale des Sciences
  95. Fr. René Just Haüy (1743–1822) – priest known as the Father of Crystallography
  96. Fr. Maximilian Hell (1720–1792) – Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vienna Observatory; the lunar crater Hell is named after him
  97. Fr. Michał Heller (1936– ) – Polish priest, Templeton Prize winner and prolific writer on numerous scientific topics
  98. Fr. Lorenz Hengler (1806–1858) – priest often credited as the inventor of the horizontal pendulum
  99. Fr. Hermann of Reichenau (1013–1054) – Benedictine historian, music theorist, astronomer and mathematician
  100. Fr. Pierre Marie Heude (1836–1902) – Jesuit missionary and zoologist who studied the natural history of Eastern Asia
  101. Fr. Franz von Paula Hladnik (1773–1844) – priest and botanist who discovered several new kinds of plants and certain genera have been named after him
  102. Fr. Giovanni Battista Hodierna (1597–1660) – priest and astronomer who catalogued nebulous objects and developed an early microscope
  103. Fr. Victor-Alphonse Huard (1853–1929) – priest, naturalist, educator, writer and promoter of the natural sciences
  104. Fr. Maximus von Imhof (1758–1817) – German Augustinian physicist and director of the Munich Academy of Sciences
  105. Fr. Giovanni Inghirami (1779–1851) – Italian Piarist astronomer who has a lunar valley named after him as well as a crater
  106. Fr. François Jacquier (1711–1788) – Franciscan mathematician and physicist; at his death he was connected with nearly all the great scientific and literary societies of Europe
  107. Fr. Stanley Jaki (1924–2009) – Benedictine priest and prolific writer who wrote on the relationship between science and theology
  108. Fr. Ányos Jedlik (1800–1895) – Benedictine engineer, physicist and inventor; considered by Hungarians and Slovaks to be the unsung Father of the dynamo and electric motor
  109. Fr. Georg Joseph Kamel (1661–1706) – Jesuit missionary and botanist who established the first pharmacy in the Philippines
  110. Fr. Karl Kehrle (1898–1996) – Benedictine Monk of Buckfast Abbey, England; beekeeper; world authority on bee breeding, developer of the Buckfast bee which is the hybrid commonly used currently
  111. Fr. Eusebio Kino (1645–1711) – Jesuit missionary, mathematician, astronomer and cartographer; drew maps based on his explorations first showing that California was not an island, as then believed; published an astronomical treatise in Mexico City of his observations of the Kirsch comet
  112. Fr. Otto Kippes (1905–1994) – priest acknowledged for his work in asteroid orbit calculations; the main belt asteroid 1780 Kippes was named in his honor
  113. Fr. Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680) – Jesuit who has been called the Father of Egyptology and "Master of a hundred arts"; wrote an encyclopedia of China; one of the first people to observe microbes through a microscope
  114. Fr. Wenceslas Pantaleon Kirwitzer (1588–1626) – Jesuit astronomer and missionary who published observations of comets
  115. Fr. Jan Krzysztof Kluk (1739–1796) – priest, naturalist agronomist and entomologist who wrote a multi-volume work on Polish animal life
  116. Fr. Marian Wolfgang Koller (1792–1866) – Benedictine professor who wrote on astronomy, physics and meteorology
  117. Fr. Franz Xaver Kugler (1862–1929) – Jesuit chemist, mathematician and Assyriologist who is most noted for his studies of cuneiform tablets and Babylonian astronomy
  118. Bl. Ramon Llull (ca. 1232 – ca. 1315) Majorcan writer and philosopher, logician and a Franciscan tertiary considered a pioneer of computation theory. Created the world's first analog computer
  119. Fr. Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713–1762) – French deacon and astronomer noted for cataloguing stars, nebulous objects and constellations
  120. Fr. Eugene Lafont (1837–1908) – Jesuit physicist, astronomer and founder of the first Scientific Society in India
  121. Fr. Antoine de Laloubère (1600–1664) – Jesuit and first mathematician to study the properties of the helix
  122. Fr. Bernard Lamy (1640–1715) – Oratorian philosopher and mathematician who wrote on the parallelogram of forces
  123. Fr. Pierre André Latreille (1762–1833) – priest and entomologist whose works describing insects assigned many of the insect taxa still in use today
  124. Abbot Georges Lemaître (1894–1966) – Belgian priest and Father of the Big Bang Theory
  125. Fr. Thomas Linacre (c. 1460–1524) – English priest, humanist, translator and physician
  126. Fr. Francis Line (1595–1675) – Jesuit magnetic clock and sundial maker who disagreed with some of the findings of Newton and Boyle
  127. Fr. Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz (1606–1682) – Cistercian who wrote on a variety of scientific subjects, including probability theory
  128. Fr. Jean Mabillon (1632–1707) – Benedictine monk and scholar, considered the founder of paleography and diplomatics
  129. Fr. James B. Macelwane (1883–1956) – "the best-known Jesuit seismologist" and "one of the most honored practitioners of the science of all time"; wrote the first textbook on seismology in America
  130. Fr. John MacEnery (1797–1841) – archaeologist who investigated the Palaeolithic remains at Kents Cavern
  131. Fr. Paul McNally (1890–1955) – Jesuit astronomer and director of Georgetown Observatory; the lunar crater McNally is named after him
  132. Fr. Manuel Magri (1851–1907) – Jesuit ethnographer, archaeologist and writer; one of Malta's pioneers in archaeology
  133. Fr. Emmanuel Maignan (1601–1676) – Minim physicist and professor of medicine who published works on gnomonics and perspective
  134. Fr. Charles Malapert (1581–1630) – Jesuit writer, astronomer and proponent of Aristotelian cosmology; also known for observations of sunpots and of the lunar surface and the lunar crater Malapert is named after him
  135. Fr. Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715) – Oratorian philosopher who studied physics, optics and the laws of motion and disseminated the ideas of Descartes and Leibniz
  136. Fr. Marcin of Urzędów (c. 1500–1573) – priest, physician, pharmacist and botanist
  137. Fr. Joseph Maréchal (1878–1944) – Jesuit philosopher and psychologist
  138. Fr. Marie-Victorin (1885–1944) – Christian Brother and botanist best known as the Father of the Jardin Botanique de Montréal
  139. Fr. Edme Mariotte (c. 1620–1684) – priest and physicist who recognized Boyle's Law and wrote about the nature of color
  140. Fr. Francesco Maurolico (1494–1575) – Benedictine who made contributions to the fields of geometry, optics, conics, mechanics, music and astronomy and gave the first known proof by mathematical induction
  141. Fr. Christian Mayer (astronomer) (1719–1783) – Jesuit astronomer most noted for pioneering the study of binary stars
  142. Fr. James Robert McConnell (1915–1999) – Irish theoretical physicist, pontifical academician, Monsignor
  143. Fr. Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) – Augustinian monk and Father of genetics
  144. Fr. Pietro Mengoli (1626–1686) – priest and mathematician who first posed the famous Basel Problem
  145. Fr. Giuseppe Mercalli (1850–1914) – priest, volcanologist and director of the Vesuvius Observatory who is best remembered today for his Mercalli scale for measuring earthquakes which is still in use
  146. Fr. Marin Mersenne (1588–1648) – Minim philosopher, mathematician and music theorist who is often referred to as the "Father of acoustics"
  147. Fr. Paul of Middelburg (1446–1534) – Bishop of Fossombrone who wrote important works on the reform of the calendar
  148. Fr. Maciej Miechowita (1457–1523) – priest who wrote the first accurate geographical and ethnographical description of Eastern Europe, as well as two medical treatises
  149. Fr. François-Napoléon-Marie Moigno (1804–1884) – Jesuit physicist and mathematician; was an expositor of science and translator rather than an original investigator
  150. Fr. Juan Ignacio Molina (1740–1829) – Jesuit naturalist, historian, botanist, ornithologist and geographer
  151. Fr. Louis Moréri (1643–1680) – 17th-century priest and encyclopedist
  152. Fr. Théodore Moret (1602–1667) – Jesuit mathematician and author of the first mathematical dissertations ever defended in Prague; the lunar crater Moretus is named after him
  153. Fr. Landell de Moura (1861–1928) – priest and inventor who was the first to accomplish the transmission of the human voice by a wireless machine
  154. Abbot Gabriel Mouton (1618–1694) – abbot, mathematician, astronomer and early proponent of the metric system
  155. Fr. Jozef Murgaš (1864–1929) – priest who contributed to wireless telegraphy and help develop mobile communications and wireless transmission of information and human voice
  156. Fr. José Celestino Mutis (1732–1808) – Priest, botanist and mathematician who led the Royal Botanical Expedition of the New World
  157. Fr. Jean François Niceron (1613–1646) – Minim mathematician who studied geometrical optics
  158. Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa (1401–1464) – Cardinal, philosopher, jurist, mathematician, astronomer and one of the great geniuses and polymaths of the 15th century
  159. Fr. Julius Nieuwland (1878–1936) – Holy Cross priest, known for his contributions to acetylene research and its use as the basis for one type of synthetic rubber, which eventually led to the invention of neoprene by DuPont
  160. Abbot Jean-Antoine Nollet (1700–1770) – abbot and physicist who discovered the phenomenon of osmosis in natural membranes
  161. Fr. Hugo Obermaier (1877–1946) – priest, prehistorian and anthropologist who is known for his work on the diffusion of mankind in Europe during the Ice Age, as well as his work with north Spanish cave art
  162. Fr. William of Ockham (c. 1288 – c. 1348) – Franciscan Scholastic who wrote significant works on logic, physics and theology; known for Occam's razor-principle
  163. Bishop Nicole Oresme (c. 1323–1382) – one of the most famous and influential philosophers of the later Middle Ages; economist, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, philosopher, theologian and Bishop of Lisieux and competent translator; one of the most original thinkers of the 14th century
  164. Fr. Barnaba Oriani (1752–1832) – Barnabite geodesist, astronomer and scientist whose greatest achievement was his detailed research of the planet Uranus; also known for Oriani's Theorem
  165. Fr. Tadeusz Pacholczyk (1965–) – priest, neuroscientist and writer
  166. Fr. Luca Pacioli (c. 1446–1517) – Franciscan friar who published several works on mathematics; often regarded as the "Father of accounting"
  167. Fr. Ignace-Gaston Pardies (1636–1673) – Jesuit physicist known for his correspondence with Newton and Descartes
  168. Fr. Franciscus Patricius (1529–1597) – priest, cosmic theorist, philosopher and Renaissance scholar
  169. Fr. John Peckham (1230–1292) – Archbishop of Canterbury and early practitioner of experimental science
  170. Abbot Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580–1637) – abbot and astronomer who discovered the Orion Nebula; lunar crater Peirescius named in his honor
  171. Fr. Stephen Joseph Perry (1833–1889) – Jesuit astronomer and Fellow of the Royal Society; made frequent observations of Jupiter's satellites, of stellar occultations, of comets, of meteorites, of sun spots and faculae
  172. Fr. Giambattista Pianciani (1784–1862) – Jesuit mathematician and physicist
  173. Fr. Giuseppe Piazzi (1746–1826) – Theatine mathematician and astronomer who discovered Ceres, today known as the largest member of the asteroid belt; also did important work cataloguing stars
  174. Fr. Jean Picard (1620–1682) – priest and first person to measure the size of the Earth to a reasonable degree of accuracy; also developed what became the standard method for measuring the right ascension of a celestial object; the PICARD mission, an orbiting solar observatory, is named in his honor
  175. Fr. Edward Pigot (1858–1929) – Jesuit seismologist and astronomer
  176. Fr. Alexandre Guy Pingré (1711–1796) – French priest astronomer and naval geographer; the lunar crater Pingré is named after him, as is the asteroid 12719 Pingré
  177. Fr. Andrew Pinsent (1966–) – priest whose current research includes the application of insights from autism and social cognition to 'second-person' accounts of moral perception and character formation; his previous scientific research contributed to the DELPHI experiment at CERN
  178. Cardinal Jean Baptiste François Pitra (1812–1889) – Benedictine cardinal, archaeologist and theologian who noteworthy for his great archaeological discoveries
  179. Fr. Charles Plumier (1646–1704) – Minim friar who is considered one of the most important botanical explorers of his time
  180. Fr. Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt (1728–1810) – Jesuit astronomer and mathematician; granted the title of the King's Astronomer; the lunar crater Poczobutt is named after him
  181. Fr. Léon Abel Provancher (1820–1892) – priest and naturalist devoted to the study and description of the fauna and flora of Canada; his pioneer work won for him the appellation of the "Father of Canadian Natural History"
  182. Fr. Louis Receveur (1757–1788) – Franciscan naturalist and astronomer; described as being as close as one could get to being an ecologist in the 18th century
  183. Fr. Franz Reinzer (1661–1708) – Jesuit who wrote an in-depth meteorological, astrological and political compendium covering topics such as comets, meteors, lightning, winds, fossils, metals, bodies of water and subterranean treasures and secrets of the earth
  184. Bishop Louis Rendu (1789–1859) – bishop who wrote an important book on the mechanisms of glacial motion; the Rendu Glacier, Alaska, US and Mount Rendu, Antarctica are named for him
  185. Fr. Vincenzo Riccati (1707–1775) – Italian Jesuit mathematician and physicist
  186. Fr. Matteo Ricci (1552–1610) – one of the founding fathers of the Jesuit China Mission and co-author of the first European-Chinese dictionary. (On route to being a saint)
  187. Fr. Giovanni Battista Riccioli (1598–1671) – Jesuit astronomer who authored Almagestum novum, an influential encyclopedia of astronomy; the first person to measure the rate of acceleration of a freely falling body; created a selenograph with Father Grimaldi that now adorns the entrance at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
  188. Abbot Richard of Wallingford (1292–1336) – abbot, renowned clockmaker and one of the initiators of western trigonometry
  189. Fr. Johannes Ruysch (c. 1460–1533) – priest, explorer, cartographer and astronomer who created the second oldest known printed representation of the New World
  190. Fr. Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri (1667–1733) – Jesuit mathematician and geometer
  191. Fr. Johannes de Sacrobosco (c. 1195 – c. 1256) – Irish monk and astronomer who wrote the authoritative medieval astronomy text Tractatus de Sphaera; his Algorismus was the first text to introduce Hindu-Arabic numerals and procedures into the European university curriculum; the lunar crater Sacrobosco is named after him
  192. Fr. Gregoire de Saint-Vincent (1584–1667) – Jesuit mathematician who made important contributions to the study of the hyperbola
  193. Fr. Alphonse Antonio de Sarasa (1618–1667) – Jesuit mathematician who contributed to the understanding of logarithms
  194. Fr. Christoph Scheiner (c. 1573–1650) – Jesuit physicist, astronomer and inventor of the pantograph; wrote on a wide range of scientific subjects
  195. Fr. Wilhelm Schmidt (linguist) (1868–1954) – Austrian priest, linguist, anthropologist and ethnologist
  196. Fr. George Schoener (1864–1941) – priest who became known in the United States as the "Padre of the Roses" for his experiments in rose breeding
  197. Fr. Gaspar Schott (1608–1666) – Jesuit physicist, astronomer and natural philosopher who is most widely known for his works on hydraulic and mechanical instruments
  198. Fr. Franz Paula von Schrank (1747–1835) – priest, botanist, entomologist and prolific writer
  199. Fr. Berthold Schwarz (c. 14th century) – Franciscan friar and reputed inventor of gunpowder and firearms
  200. Fr. Anton Maria Schyrleus of Rheita (1604–1660) – Capuchin astronomer and optrician who built Kepler's telescope
  201. Fr. George Mary Searle (1839–1918) – Paulist astronomer and professor who discovered six galaxies
  202. Fr. Angelo Secchi (1818–1878) – Jesuit pioneer in astronomical spectroscopy and one of the first scientists to state authoritatively that the sun is a star
  203. Fr. Alessandro Serpieri (1823–1885) – priest, astronomer and seismologist who studied shooting stars and was the first to introduce the concept of the seismic radiant
  204. Fr. Gerolamo Sersale (1584–1654) – Jesuit astronomer and selenographer; his map of the moon can be seen in the Naval Observatory of San Fernando; the lunar crater Sirsalis is named after him
  205. Fr. Benedict Sestini (1816–1890) – Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and architect; studied sunspots and eclipses; wrote textbooks on a variety of mathematical subjects
  206. Fr. René François Walter de Sluse (1622–1685) – Priest and mathematician with a family of curves named after him
  207. Fr. Domingo de Soto (1494–1560) – Spanish Dominican priest and professor at the University of Salamanca; in his commentaries to Aristotle he proposed that free falling bodies undergo constant acceleration
  208. Fr. Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729–1799) – priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction and essentially discovered echolocation; his research of biogenesis paved the way for the investigations of Louis Pasteur
  209. Fr. Valentin Stansel (1621–1705) – Jesuit astronomer who made important observations of comets
  210. Fr. Johan Stein (1871–1951) – Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vatican Observatory, which he modernized and relocated to Castel Gandolfo; the crater Stein on the far side of the Moon is named after him
  211. Bl. Nicolas Steno (1638–1686) – Bishop beatified by Pope John Paul II who is often called the Father of geology and stratigraphy, and is known for Steno's principles
  212. Pope Sylvester II (c. 946–1003) – Prolific scholar who endorsed and promoted Arabic knowledge of arithmetic, mathematics and astronomy in Europe, reintroducing the abacus and armillary sphere which had been lost to Europe since the end of the Greco-Roman era
  213. Fr. Alexius Sylvius Polonus (1593 – c. 1653) – Jesuit astronomer who studied sunspots and published a work on calendariography
  214. Fr. Ignacije Szentmartony (1718–1793) – Jesuit cartographer, mathematician and astronomer who became a member of the expedition that worked on the rearrangement of the frontiers among colonies in South America
  215. Fr. André Tacquet (1612–1660) – Jesuit mathematician whose work laid the groundwork for the eventual discovery of calculus
  216. Fr. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955) – Jesuit paleontologist and geologist who took part in the discovery of Peking Man
  217. Fr. Francesco Lana de Terzi (c. 1631–1687) – Jesuit referred to as the Father of Aviation for his pioneering efforts; he also developed a blind writing alphabet prior to Braille.
  218. Fr. Theodoric of Freiberg (c. 1250 – c. 1310) – Dominican theologian and physicist who gave the first correct geometrical analysis of the rainbow
  219. Fr. Joseph Tiefenthaler (1710–1785) – Jesuit who was one of the earliest European geographers to write about India
  220. Fr. Giuseppe Toaldo (1719–1797) – priest and physicist who studied atmospheric electricity and did important work with lightning rods; the asteroid 23685 Toaldo is named for him
  221. Fr. José Torrubia (c. 1700–1768) – Franciscan linguist, scientist, collector of fossils and books and writer on historical, political and religious subjects
  222. Fr. Franz de Paula Triesnecker (1745–1817) – Jesuit astronomer and director of the Vienna Observatory; published a number of treatises on astronomy and geography; the lunar crater Triesnecker is named after him
  223. Fr. Luca Valerio (1552–1618) – Jesuit mathematician who developed ways to find volumes and centers of gravity of solid bodies
  224. Fr. Pierre Varignon (1654–1722) – priest and mathematician whose principle contributions were to statics and mechanics; created a mechanical explanation of gravitation
  225. Fr. Jacques de Vaucanson (1709–1782) – French Minim friar inventor and artist who was responsible for the creation of impressive and innovative automata and machines such as the first completely automated loom
  226. Fr. Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746–1822) – priest who discovered the Venturi effect
  227. Bishop Fausto Veranzio (c. 1551–1617) – Bishop, polymath, inventor and lexicographer
  228. Fr. Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–1688) – Jesuit astronomer and mathematician; designed what some claim to be the first ever self-propelled vehicle, which many claim this as the world's first automobile
  229. Fr. Francesco de Vico (1805–1848) – Jesuit astronomer who discovered or co-discovered a number of comets; also made observations of Saturn and the gaps in its rings; the lunar crater De Vico and the asteroid 20103 de Vico are named after him
  230. Fr. Vincent of Beauvais (c.1190–c.1264) – Dominican who wrote the most influential encyclopedia of the Middle Ages
  231. Fr. Benito Viñes (1837–1893) – Jesuit meteorologist who made the first weather model to predict the trajectory of a hurricane
  232. Archbishop János Vitéz (archbishop) (c.1405–1472) – Archbishop, astronomer and mathematician
  233. Fr. Martin Waldseemüller (c. 1470–1520) – German priest and cartographer who, along with Matthias Ringmann, is credited with the first recorded usage of the word America
  234. Fr. Godefroy Wendelin (1580–1667) – priest and astronomer who recognized that Kepler's third law applied to the satellites of Jupiter; the lunar crate Vendelinus is named in his honor
  235. Fr. Johannes Werner (1468–1522) – priest, mathematician, astronomer and geographer
  236. Fr. Witelo (c. 1230 – after 1280, before 1314) – Friar, physicist, natural philosopher and mathematician; lunar crater Vitello named in his honor; his Perspectiva powerfully influenced later scientists, in particular Johannes Kepler
  237. Fr. Julian Tenison Woods (1832–1889) – Passionist geologist and mineralogist
  238. Fr. Theodor Wulf (1868–1946) – Jesuit physicist who was one of the first experimenters to detect excess atmospheric radiation
  239. Fr. Franz Xaver von Wulfen (1728–1805) – Jesuit botanist, mineralogist and alpinist
  240. Fr. John Zahm (1851–1921) – Holy Cross priest and South American explorer
  241. Fr. Giuseppe Zamboni (1776–1846) – priest and physicist who invented the Zamboni pile, an early electric battery similar to the Voltaic pile
  242. Fr. Francesco Zantedeschi (1797–1873) – priest who was among the first to recognize the marked absorption by the atmosphere of red, yellow and green light; published papers on the production of electric currents in closed circuits by the approach and withdrawal of a magnet, thereby anticipating Michael Faraday's classical experiments of 1831
  243. Fr. Niccolò Zucchi (1586–1670) – claimed to have tried to build a reflecting telescope in 1616 but abandoned the idea (maybe due to the poor quality of the mirror); may have been the first to see the belts on the planet Jupiter (1630)
  244. Fr. Giovanni Battista Zupi (c. 1590–1650) – Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and first person to discover that the planet Mercury had orbital phases; the lunar crater Zupus is named after him

sexta-feira, 25 de novembro de 2016

Relatório sobre a Riqueza Global do Credit Suisse. 0,7% detém 50% do PIB Global e Continua Aumentando Poder.


Os ricos estão ficando mais ricos e os pobres mais pobres. É o que diz o relatório do Credit Suisse sobre a riqueza global.

O relatório pode ser acessado clicando aqui.

0,7% da população mundial detém quase 50% da riqueza do mundo. Os outros 99,3% ficam com o resto.

Vejam o relato feito pelo site Zero Hedge, que traz mais informações sobre  a desigualdade de renda global:

Half Of The Population Of The World Is Dirt Poor - And The Global Elite Want To Keep It That Way


Could you survive on just $2.50 a day?  According to Compassion International, approximately half of the population of the entire planet currently lives on $2.50 a day or less.  Meanwhile, those hoarding wealth at the very top of the global pyramid are rapidly becoming a lot wealthier.  Don’t get me wrong – I am a very big believer in working hard and contributing something of value to society, and those that work the hardest and contribute the most should be able to reap the rewards.  In this article I am in no way, shape or form criticizing true capitalism, because if true capitalism were actually being practiced all over the planet we would have far, far less poverty today.  Instead, our planet is dominated by a heavily socialized debt-based central banking system that systematically transfers wealth from hard working ordinary citizens to the global elite.  Those at the very top of the pyramid know that they are impoverishing everyone else, and they very much intend to keep it that way.
Let’s start with some of the hard numbers.  According to Zero Hedge, Credit Suisse had just released their yearly report on global wealth, and it shows that 45.6 percent of all the wealth in the world is controlled by just 0.7 percent of the people…
As Credit Suisse tantalizingly shows year after year, the number of people who control just shy of a majority of global net worth, or 45.6% of the roughly $255 trillion in household wealth, is declining progressively relative to the total population of the world, and in 2016 the number of people who are worth more than $1 million was just 33 million, roughly 0.7% of the world’s population of adults. On the other end of the pyramid, some 3.5 billion adults had a net worth of less than $10,000, accounting for just about $6 trillion in household wealth.
And since this is a yearly report, we can go back and see how things have changed over time.  When Zero Hedge did this, it was discovered that the wealth of those at the very top “has nearly doubled” over the past six years, and meanwhile the poor have gotten even poorer…
Incidentally, we tracked down the first Credit Suisse report we found in this series from 2010, where the total wealth of the top “layer” in the pyramid was a modest $69.2 trillion for the world’s millionaires. It has nearly doubled in the 6 years since then. Meanwhile, the world’s poorest have gotten, you got it, poorer, as those adults who were worth less than $10,000 in 2010 had a combined net worth of $8.2 trillion, a number which has since declined to $6.1 trillion in 2016 despite a half a billion increase in the sample size.
If these trends continue at this pace, it won’t be too long before the global elite have virtually all of the wealth and the rest of us have virtually nothing.
Perhaps you are fortunate enough to still have a good job, and you live in a large home and you will sleep in a warm bed tonight.
Well, you should consider yourself to be very blessed, because that is definitely not the case for most of the rest of the world.  The following 11 facts about global poverty come from dosomething.com, and I want you to really let these numbers sink in for a moment…
  1. Nearly 1/2 of the world’s population — more than 3 billion people — live on less than $2.50 a day. More than 1.3 billion live in extreme poverty — less than $1.25 a day.
  2. 1 billion children worldwide are living in poverty. According to UNICEF, 22,000 children die each day due to poverty.
  3. 805 million people worldwide do not have enough food to eat. Food banks are especially important in providing food for people that can’t afford it themselves. Run a food drive outside your local grocery store so people in your community have enough to eat. Sign up for Supermarket Stakeout.
  4. More than 750 million people lack adequate access to clean drinking water. Diarrhea caused by inadequate drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene kills an estimated 842,000 people every year globally, or approximately 2,300 people per day.
  5. In 2011, 165 million children under the age 5 were stunted (reduced rate of growth and development) due to chronic malnutrition.
  6. Preventable diseases like diarrhea and pneumonia take the lives of 2 million children a year who are too poor to afford proper treatment.
  7. As of 2013, 21.8 million children under 1 year of age worldwide had not received the three recommended doses of vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.
  8. 1/4 of all humans live without electricity — approximately 1.6 billion people.
  9. 80% of the world population lives on less than $10 a day.
  10. Oxfam estimates that it would take $60 billion annually to end extreme global poverty–that’s less than 1/4 the income of the top 100 richest billionaires.
  11. The World Food Programme says, “The poor are hungry and their hunger traps them in poverty.” Hunger is the number one cause of death in the world, killing more than HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis combined.
So how did we get here?
Debt is the primary mechanism that takes wealth from ordinary people like you and me and puts it into the hands of the global elite.
In my recent article entitled “Why Donald Trump Must Shut Down The Federal Reserve And Start Issuing Debt-Free Money“, I discussed how the Federal Reserve was designed to entrap the U.S. government in an endless debt spiral from which it could never possibly escape.  And that is precisely what has happened, as the U.S. national debt has gotten more than 5000 times larger since the Federal Reserve was created in 1913.
In that very same year, the federal income tax was instituted, and that is a key part of the program for the global elite.  You see, the income tax is how wealth is transferred from us to the government.  And then a continuously growing national debt is how that wealth is transferred from the government to the elite.
It is a very complicated system, but at the end of the day it is all about taking money from us and getting it into their pockets.
And at this point more than 99.9 percent of the population of the world lives in a country with a central bank, and almost every nation on the planet has some form of income tax.
It is a global system that is designed to create as much debt as possible, and I recently shared with my readers that the total amount of debt in the world has hit a staggering all-time record high of 152 trillion dollars.
The borrower is the servant of the lender, and the global elite have used various forms of debt to turn the rest of the planet into their debt slaves.
As debt levels race higher and higher all over the planet, the elite are using the magic of compound interest to grab a bigger and bigger share of the pie.
Given enough time, those at the very top would have virtually everything and the rest of us would have virtually nothing.  The middle class is shrinking all over the globe, and the gap between the wealthy and the poor continues to grow at an astounding pace.
But the vast majority of people out there have no idea how money, debt, taxes and central banks really work, and so they have no idea that this is purposely being done to them.
The truth is that we don’t have to have this much global poverty, and if we correctly identify the root causes of this poverty we can start working on some real solutions.